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Air Quality and Livestock Farming

Air Quality and Livestock Farming
15-25 napon belül beszerezzük

Cikkszám: 741

June 7, 2018 by CRC Press
Reference - 372 Pages
ISBN 9781138027039 - CAT# K24741


  • addressing the raising awareness of the importance of optimal health and welfare for lifestock species
  • with contributions from international specialists and researchers
  • providing up-to-date information for professionals involved in modern animal production


Air quality has a direct influence on health, welfare and production performance of livestock as the high concentrations of noxious gases, dust and airborne microorganisms are likely to reduce production efficiency and the general welfare of farm animals. Long term exposure to particulates in livestock buildings might also affect the respiratory health of farm workers. Dust in animal buildings contains many biologically active substances such as bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and residues of antibiotics (as a result of veterinary treatments) that are suspected to be hazardous to human health. Furthermore, air pollutants emitted from livestock buildings can reduce air, water and soil quality and can potentially undermine the health of nearby residents. Airborne emissions include ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, particulates like dust and microorganisms. In addition, other potentially harmful substances such as heavy metals, antibiotic residues and components of disinfectants might be also emitted from livestock building that are potentially damaging to ecosystems. In this book, key aspects of agricultural air quality, such as monitoring, managing and reducing airborne pollutants in and around livestock facilities are reviewed. This book will be useful for farming professionals, academics, students, policy makers, business leaders, regulatory bodies and agricultural consultants.

Table of Contents

Section I: Characteristics and sources of different airborne pollutants

1. Airborne dust in livestock buildings
Steven J. Hoff
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Particulate sources and fractional characteristics
1.3 Indoor particulate matter concentrations
1.4 Summary of comprehensive animal and poultry housing PM studies
1.5 Conclusion

2. Lagoon characteristics and ambient hydrogen sulfide concentrations at a swine feeding facility
Albert J. Heber
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Literature review
2.3 Methodology
2.4 Results and discussion
2.5 Summary and conclusions

3. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in swine production
Ji-Qin Ni, Albert J. Heber and Teng-Teeh Lim
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Ammonia in swine production
3.3 Hydrogen sulfide in swine production
3.4 Discussion and conclusions

4. Pollutants in livestock buildings: Ammonia and dust interplay with the respiratory tract
Annamaria Costa and Cinzia Domeneghini
4.1 Ammonia in piggeries: concentrations and effects on animal’s health and performance
4.2 Particulate matter: origin, classification, deposition in the respiratory system and effects on animal health and production
4.3 Concept of secondary particulate matter: from gases to PM formation

Section II: Measurement issues

5. Gaseous emissions of bedded pack barns with wood chips and compost as bedding material
Hendrik Jan van Dooren, Francis Sanderink, Annemieke Hol and Paul Galama
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Materials and methods
5.3 Results
5.4 Discussion
5.5 Conclusions

6. Seasonal variability of the PM and ammonia concentrations in uninsulated loose-housing cowshed
Marek Maasikmets, Erik Teinemaa, Allan Kaasik and Veljo Kimmel
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials and methods
6.3 Results and discussion
6.4 Conclusions

7. Air quality and factors related to sub-optimal pig housing conditions in nursery and finishing rooms: A field study in 143 French herds
Christelle Fablet, Fabrice Bidan, Virginie Dorenlor, Florent Eono, Eric Eveno, Nicolas Rose and François Madec
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Material and methods
7.3 Results
7.4 Discussion
7.5 Conclusions

Section III: Pollutant levels encountered in livestock buildings

8. Temperature, relative humidity, noise, dust and odor levels recorded on free-range piggery sites in three states of Australia
Thomas Banhazi
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Materials and methods
8.3 Results and discussion
8.4 Conclusions 136

9. Airborne pollutant concentrations within and emission rates from Australian piggery buildings
Thomas Banhazi
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Material and methods
9.3 Results
9.4 Discussion
9.5 Conclusions

10. Microclimate and air quality in uninsulated loose-housing cowsheds in temperate climate conditions
Allan Kaasik and Marek Maasikmets
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Materials and methods
10.3 Results and discussion
10.4 Conclusions

Section IV: Effects of sub-optimal air quality on workers, animals and the environment

11. Intensive livestock housing: a review: Preventing occupational respiratory hazards for workers
Kelley J. Donham
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Which hazardous dusts and gases are found in ILHs?
11.3 Who is exposed to these dusts and gases, and when?
11.4 How commonly does excessive exposure occur?
11.5 Respiratory effects of inhaling ILH dusts and gases
11.6 Diagnosis
11.7 Treatment

12. The effect of air quality in livestock buildings on the occupational health of farm workers
Thomas Banhazi and Dino Pisaniello
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Materials and methods
12.3 Results
12.4 Discussion
12.5 Recommendations 180

13 Dust dispersion modeling of fugitive emissions from piggeries
Thomas Banhazi
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Methodology
13.3 Results and discussion
13.4 Conclusions

14 The effects of atmospheric ammonia during export of livestock
Yu Zhang and Clive J.C. Phillips
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Source of atmospheric ammonia during live export
14.3 Atmospheric ammonia levels during live export
14.4 Effects of ammonia on livestock during live export
14.5 Threshold levels of atmospheric ammonia for humans
14.6 Threshold levels of atmospheric ammonia for animals
14.7 Conclusions

15 Hygiene and cleanliness in pig buildings as preventive medicine to ensure healthier animals
Christelle Fablet
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Influence of hygiene and cleanliness on pig health
15.3 Hygiene to ensure food safety and quality
15.4 Hygiene, health and air quality in buildings
15.5 Current means to attain hygiene in pig production and the need to implement better hygiene
15.6 Cleaning and disinfection procedures in pig buildings
15.7 Conclusions

Section V: Reduction methods Controlling internal concentrations and emissions from the animal buildings

16 Controlling the internal concentrations of gases and odor within and emissions from animal buildings
Jens Seedorf
16.1 A general view on airborne pollutants – an introduction
16.2 A brief description of relevant gases and odor
16.3 Control and reduction measures
16.4 Final remarks

17 Controlling the internal concentrations of particulate matter within and emissions from animal buildings
Jens Seedorf
17.1 The characteristics of airborne particles at a glance
17.2 Control and reduction measures
17.3 Final remarks

18 Emission reduction from livestock buildings using a filtration device
Thomas Banhazi
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Materials and methods
18.3 Results and discussion
18.4 Conclusions

19 Effect of electrostatic precipitation on particulate matter emissions from a high-rise layer house
Teng-Teeh Lim, Chaoyuan Wang, Albert J. Heber, Ji-Qin Ni and Lingying Zhao
19.1 Introduction and objective
19.2 Methods and procedures
19.3 Experimental design
19.4 Results and discussion
19.5 Conclusions

Section VI: Reduction methods and technologies for controlling airborne pollutants

20 Oil-spraying technologies to be used for dust reduction in livestock buildings
Hisamitsu Takai and Thomas Banhazi
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Fundamentals for designing oil-spraying for dust control
20.3 Strategy of the oil-spraying operation
20.4 Different types of oil-spraying systems
20.5 Review of studies reported previously
20.6 Recommendations for future studies

21 Housing index development for a holistic air quality evaluation: A preliminary framework
Jens Seedorf
21.1 Introduction
21.2 The concepts of air quality indices
21.3 Conclusions

22 Computer-based management of air quality data: Development of a software system
Thomas Banhazi
22.1 Introduction
22.2 General description of the software
22.3 Description of the main functionalities of the BASE-Q software
22.4 Description of the main functionalities of the Pocket BASE-Q program
22.5 Conclusion

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