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Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, 4th Edition

Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, 4th Edition
Raktáron
Új
Értékelés:

Cikkszám: 660

ISBN: 978-1-118-61127-2
424 pages
April 2015, Wiley-Blackwell

Description

Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology, Fourth Edition updates the most comprehensive reference available on exotic animal hematology and cytology of all major species. 

  • Acts as both an atlas and a text, offering high-quality photographs and step-by-step descriptions of techniques associated with preparing and interpreting hematology and cytology samples
  • Presents complete information on hematology and cytology in a wide range of exotic species, including small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish
  • Includes more than 700 high-quality color photographs, now with sizing bars
  • Takes a new disease-based structure for improved ease of use
  • Provides straightforward step-by-step descriptions of sample preparation and interpretation

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Scientific Names Used in Text xv

SECTION I EVALUATION OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILMS AND HEMIC CYTOLOGY

1. Peripheral Blood of Mammals 3

Normal Hemic Cells 3

Erythrocytes 3

Leukocytes 4

Platelets 8

Evaluation of Mammalian Erythrocytes 16

Inflammatory Leukogram in Mammals 25

Neutrophilia of Excitement and Stress in Mammals 28

Eosinophilia and Eosinopenia in Mammals 30

Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytosis in Mammals 32

References 33

2. Peripheral Blood of Birds 37

Evaluation of Avian Erythrocytes 37

Anemia in Birds 40

Hypochromasia 44

Avian Erythrocytosis 44

Evaluation of Avian Leukocytes 44

Inflammatory Leukogram in Birds 51

Heterophilia of Excitement and Stress in Birds 54

Leukopenia in Birds 55

Heteropenia 56

Lymphopenia 56

Monocytosis in Birds 56

Eosinophilia and Eosinopenia in Birds 57

Thrombocytopenia 58

Thrombocytosis 58

Normal Variations in the Hemogram of Birds 58

References 60

3. Peripheral Blood of Reptiles 67

Evaluation of Reptilian Erythrocytes and Anemia 67

Inclusion Body Disease 71

Leukocytes and Inflammatory in Reptiles 71

Heterophils 72

Eosinophils 73

Basophils 73

Lymphocytes 73

Monocytes 73

Reference Values 75

Inflammation 77

Considerations in the Interpretation of the Reptilian Hemogram 79

Leukemia 79

Eosinophilia in Reptiles 79

Basophilia in Reptiles 79

Lymphocytosis and Lymphopenia in Reptiles 82

Monocytosis in Reptiles 84

Reptile Thrombocytes 85

References 85

4. Peripheral Blood of Amphibians 89

Evaluation of Amphibian Erythrocytes 89

Evaluation of Amphibian Leukocytes 90

Evaluation of Amphibian Thrombocytes 93

References 94

5. Peripheral Blood of Fish 97

Evaluation of Fish Erythrocytes 97

Evaluation of Fish Leukocytes 101

Leukocytes of Commonly Studied Teleost Fish 108

Evaluation of Fish Thrombocytes and Hemostasis 111

References 112

6. Blood Parasites 115

Avian Blood Parasites 115

Reptile Blood Parasites 122

Amphibian Blood Parasites 125

Fish Blood Parasites 125

References 127

7. Bone Marrow/Hematopoiesis 131

Mammalian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 131

Avian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 138

Avian Hematopoietic Tissue Other Than Bone Marrow 145

Reptile Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 145

Amphibian Hematopoiesis and Bone Marrow Evaluation 148

Piscine Hematopoiesis 149

References 151

SECTION II BLOOD SAMPLE AND BONE MARROW COLLECTION

8. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Small Mammals 157

Small Rodents: Mice (Mus musculus) Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) 157

Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 158

Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) and Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) 160

Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps) 160

Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) 161

Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) 161

Other Methods of Blood Collection 162

Blood Sample Preparation 163

References 163

9. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Birds 165

Restraint 165

Blood Collection 165

References 172

10. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Reptiles 173

References 178

11. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Amphibians 181

References 182

12. Blood Sample Collection and Preparation in Fish 183

References 185

13. Bone Marrow Collection and Evaluation 187

Mammals 187

Birds 190

Reptiles 194

References 195

SECTION III HEMATOLOGIC TECHNIQUES

14. Hematologic Techniques in Lower Vertebrates 199

Evaluation of Erythrocytes 199

Evaluation of Leukocytes 202

Evaluation of Thrombocytes 204

References 204

SECTION IV CYTODIAGNOSIS

15. Normal Mammalian Cytology 209

The Digestive Tract 209

The Respiratory Tract 212

The Skin 212

The Eye 214

Joint Fluid 214

Lymph Nodes 215

Spleen 216

Liver 216

Kidney 217

References 217

16. Normal Avian Cytology 219

The Digestive Tract 219

Respiratory Tract 220

The Skin 221

The Eye 223

Joint Fluid 224

Lymphoid Tissue 225

Liver 226

Kidney 227

References 227

17. Normal Herptile (Reptiles and Amphibian) Cytology 229

The Digestive Tract 229

Respiratory Tract 229

The Skin 232

References 233

18. The Cytology of Inflammation 235

Neutrophilic/Heterophilic Inflammation of Mammals 235

Heterophilic Inflammation of Birds and Reptiles 237

Septic Inflammation 240

Mixed Cell Inflammation 240

Macrophagic Inflammation 240

Eosinophilic Inflammation 243

Inflammatory Lesions of the Alimentary Tract 244

Inflammation of the Respiratory Tract 247

Inflammation of the Skin 252

Inflammation of Synovial Joints 253

Inflammation of Lymphoid Tissue 257

Inflammation of the Liver 258

Ophthalmic Inflammation 259

Inflammation of Fish 262

References 263

19. The Cytology of Hyperplasia/Benign Neoplasia 267

Adipose 267

Hepatic Lipidosis 268

Epidermal Cyst 270

Sebaceous Cysts 271

Feather Cysts 271

Papillomas 271

Papillomatosis 272

Histiocytoma 272

Chordomas 273

Leiomyoma 273

Squamous Hyperplasia/Metaplasia 273

Lymphoid Hyperplasia 274

Thyroid Hyperplasia 274

References 274

20. The Cytology of Malignant Neoplasia 277

General Cellular Features of Malignant Neoplasia 277

Cytoplasmic Features of Malignant Neoplasia 277

Nuclear Features of Malignant Neoplasia 278

Structural Features of Malignant Neoplasia 280

Cellular Arrangements 291

Lower Vertebrates (Birds Reptiles and Amphibians) 292

Neoplasia of the Gastrointestinal Tract 293

Neoplasia of the Respiratory Tract 293

Cutaneous Neoplasms 294

Ocular Neoplasia 298

Neoplasms of Joints and Bone 298

Liver Neoplasms 298

Renal Neoplasms 298

Reproductive Tract Neoplasia 300

Neoplasia of Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) 300

Neoplasia of African Pygmy Hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) 300

Malignant Neoplasia in Fish 301

References 302

21. Effusions 309

Transudate 310

Modified Transudates 310

Exudative Effusion 311

Hemorrhagic and Chylous Effusion 312

Malignant Effusion 315

Hemorrhagic Exudative and Malignant Effusions of Lower Vertebrates 316

Accidental Aspiration of the Liver 318

Synovial Cyst 319

Cutaneous Cysts 320

Mucocele 320

References 320

22. Infectious Agents 323

Avian Pox 323

Mycoplasmosis 323

Clostridium 323

Campylobacter 324

Spirochetes 326

Chlamydophila/Chlamydia 326

Mycobacterium 328

Candidiasis 330

Cryptococcus neoformans 331

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster in Birds 331

Saccharomyces Yeast in Rabbits 332

Aspergillosis 332

Chytridiomycosis 333

Chrysosporium Anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii 334

Saprolegniasis 334

Trichomoniasis 335

Cryptosporidiosis 336

Giardia 338

References 338

SECTION V SAMPLE COLLECTION FOR CYTOLOGY

23. Cytology Sampling Techniques and Evaluation 345

Köhler Illumination 345

Sample Collection 346

Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy 346

Contact Smears (Touch Imprints or Impression Smears) and Squash Preparations (Compression Preparations) 347

Fluid Samples 348

Sample Preparation 350

Evaluation of the Cytologic Sample 351

Basic Cytologic Responses 353

References 353

SECTION VI WET MOUNT MICROSCOPY OF FISH

24. Wet Mount Microscopy in Fish 357

Gill Biopsies 357

Mucus Smears and Fin Biopsies 357

Ciliate Protozoa 359

Flagellate Protozoa 362

Myxozoa 365

Microsporidians 367

Monogeneans 367

Digenean Trematodes 369

Turbellarians 369

Crustaceans 370

Nematodes 371

References 371

25. Wet-Mount Sampling Techniques in Fish 373

Sampling Techniques 373

Mucus Smear 373

Fin Biopsy 374

Gill Biopsy 374

Fecal Sample 375

References 375

Appendices 377

A. Stains and Solutions Used in Hematology and Cytology 377

Acid-Fast Stain 377

Gram’s Stain 377

Macchiavello’s Stain 378

Modified Giménez Stain 378

New Methylene Blue Stain 378

Standard Natt and Herrick’s Solution and Stain 379

Elasmobranch-Modified Natt and Herrick’s Solution and Stain 379

Elasmobranch-Modified Heparin–EDTA 380

Elasmobranch-Modified ACD Solution 380

Quick or Stat Stains 380

Sudan III and Sudan IV Stains 381

Wright’s Stain 381

Wright–Giemsa Stain 381

B. Hematologic Values 383

Index 393

Author Information

Terry W. Campbell, DVM, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Zoo Medicine at the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.

Reviews

“This book is a must-have reference for any avian and exotic pet practice, especially if laboratory testing is done on-site. It is also an excellent resource for understanding and interpreting laboratory results and explaining pathologic diagnoses.”  (Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 15 September 2015)

‘Exotic Animal Hematology and Cytology’ is the fourth edition of a book that has become an essential text on the bookshelf of many exotic animal practitioners.` (Veterinary Record 2016)

"Already in 1988, when the first edition of Avian Hematology and Cytology came out, the book was regarded as a highly useful reference to aid in the cytodiagnosis of diseases in birdgs, being unique in its focus on collection and
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